Epidemiology is the study of how diseases affect humans. It is the study of the number of occurrences, the distribution and the reasons behind the spread of diseases. When a kind of disease affects a population for the first time, an epidemiologist will perform research to find out the causes and how the people were infected. With the results from their research, they devise preventive tips to discourage the spread of the disease. Some epidemiology terms worth knowing are listed below:

Acquired Immunity- This is the kind of immunity that a person gets from infection or vaccination. A good example of acquired immunity is chicken pox.

Antibody- This is also known as immunoglobin. It is a blood protein that is produced to combine with a specific antigen.

Antigen- Antigens are introduced into the body to speed up the production of antibodies. Examples of antigens are toxins, cells and bacteria.

Anthelmintics- These are drugs that are made to fight against worms in the body.

Arbovirus- This is an RNA virus. People get infected with it when they are bitten by arthropods such as ticks and mosquitoes. This infection can cause yellow fever, malaria, dengue and encephalitis.

BIDE- This means Birth, Immigration, Death and Emigration. These parameters are factors that determine population growth.

Carrier- This is a living thing that possesses a microorganism and transfers it to another living organism. The microorganism does not have any significant effect on the carrier because of the immunity provided against it.

Contagious Distribution- This is the vast distribution of bacteria and fungi in the environment.

Crude birth rate- This is obtained when life birth is divided by average population and the result is multiplied by 1,000.

Crude death rate- When the number of deaths per year is divided by the number of individuals alive within the same period and the result is multiplied by 1,000, the final result is known as the crude death rate.

Definitive host- This is the host where the parasite fully matures into an adult or a sexually active organism.

Direct Life Cycle- The stage in which a parasite exists before it is transferred from one host to another without the help of an intermediate vector.

Disease- This is a condition that prevents the body system from operating normally.

Epidemic- This is a rapid spread of infection over a large number of people at a particular time.

Epidemic fadeout- This refers to the massive reduction of parasites that occur immediately after an epidemic.

Herd Immunity- Immunity possessed by a group of living things against a particular pathogen.

Haloendemic- This is the infection of every living thing in a particular environment.

Immunity- This is a condition developed by the body to prevent infection.

Immunosuppression- This means the weakening of a body’s immune system.

Infection- This is the transfer of pathogen or disease into the blood stream.

Inoculum- This is the object that is used for inoculation.

Latent Period- This means the period between the time of infection and the manifestation of the signs if the disease.

Maternal Immunity- This is the immunity possessed by a fetus when antibodies from the mother are transferred to it through the placenta.

Pandemic- A situation that affects a very large population living in wide geographic area.

Panzootic- A particular kind of disease that is very common among different kinds of animals living in a wide geographic area.

Pathogen- This is an organism that causes disease. Examples of this include bacteria and virus.

Serology- This is the scientific study of serums. Scientists in this field are particularly interested in knowing the characteristics of serums and the way they react.

Transmission- The act of transmitting from one point or host to another.

Virion- A fully structured virus with a protein coat.

Virulence- This is the ability of virus to overpower the defense mechanisms of the body.

Zoonosis- A disease that can be transferred from animals to humans under natural circumstances. A good example is the case between reptiles and salmonella.

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